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Phase 1 – ADD/ADHD Protocols

Start with the first exercise in each movement category, which are denoted by the red headings. Perform one exercise until you are satisfied with the form of the patient and feel they have begun to master the movement as part of muscle memory. With some movements this will only be a matter of minutes, while others may take longer. Use your judgment. To move on, you can either complete all movements in one category or move to the first movement in the next category (red header).

To maximize aerobic benefit, transition from one exercise to another as quickly as possible. The combination of developing movement skills and aerobic exercise is the most effective way to promote neuroplasticity – providing you with maximum benefit!


Balance & Stability

Athletic Position

The position of the body in a flexed (bent) hip and knee position. The foot position is based on the athlete’s natural landing position. The head is set in a neutral/natural spine position (looking through the eyebrows). The shoulders are retracted back and the chest is expanded (proud position). The shoulders will be slightly over the toes. The arms are flexed at the elbow, and the hands are at the hip. The palms are neutral (facing hip) with the thumbs up. The lower back is isometrically contracted as is the abdominal region. The majority of the athlete’s weight is distributed on the mid-foot to the heels. Level 2.
This is the starting position of all athletic events. This position is also lost with time or lack of use. The foot position can be described as “jump width” apart. This may be slightly different for different body types. The athlete should also feel this as a comfortable position, if they are working to assume the position, then technique is poor.
Balance & Stability. An athletic stance is a standing position which allows you to maximize your strength, power, and speed, while decreasing risk of injury.

Balance – One Leg

Stand with both feet on the ground, then raise one foot and remain in balance for 5 seconds. Perform bilaterally. 2 sets of 6 reps. Level 1.
Balance & Stability. Being able to stand comfortably on one leg is an important piece of the puzzle to staying injury free. While there is a difference between static single leg stability (just standing on one leg) to dynamic single leg stability (i.e. running), static stance is a good starting point. If you can’t control yourself while balancing on one foot, it is going to be difficult to dynamically perform a single leg squat jump over the course of a few miles while you are running.
Raised leg should be in sagittal plane with hip and 45 degrees and knee at 90 degrees. Look for minimal movement during the activity. Large movements or hopping should end the activity.

Fire Hydrant

Get on hands and knees, raise one leg as high as possible, with knees remaining bent. Perform bilaterally. 3 sets of 10 reps. Level 3.
Balance & Stability: The exercise specifically targets the gluteus medius, the muscle responsible for moving the leg sideways away from your body (technically termed abduction). Good general hip mobility exercise. Also stretches the groin muscles.
Be sure the knee is kept at 90°, and that the thigh is raised until parallel to the floor, if possible.

2″ x 4″ Beam/Line Walk

On a beam (2” high, 4” wide, 20’ long), have the student walk the entire length of the beam, make a 180° turn and walk back. If the student’s feet touch the ground before they touch or cross the finish line, this constitutes a fall. If a beam is not available, have them walk a line on the ground. Level 3.
Balance & Stability/Dynamic Movement: Beam walking helps establish and promote baseline balance during a functional movement and stimulates the brains righting reactions. Good activity for all age groups. Balance in movement is one of the first primary reflexes to be lost during development.
By employing a balance beam that is flush with the ground, this will decrease any possible fear of falling. Once this becomes easier, utilize a real balance beam to work on more challenging balance skills.

Two Leg Bridge

Lay on your back with hands by your sides, your knees bent and feet flat on the floor. Make sure your feet are under your knees. Tighten your abdominal and buttock muscles. Raise your hips up to create a straight line from your knees to shoulders. Squeeze your core and try to pull your belly button back toward your spine. Slowly raise and extend one leg while keeping your pelvis raised and level. Level 1.
Balance & Stability. Good for strengthening the glutes, hamstrings, and core muscles.
If you lose control during the single leg part of the exercise, go back to the more stable two leg bridge. Also if you observe one leg drop more than the other during the single leg position, that could indicate asymmetry.

Dynamic Movement

Stop – Lower Center of Mass

Ask students to start in good athletic position and squat down slowly as low as they can go. Then hold for 4 seconds. Repeat this 4 times. Level 3.
Dynamic Movement: This activity activates the hips in the bottom position of the squat and activates the gluts for an isometric contraction at the bottom.
Make sure the squat is as deep as possible. Ideally the thigh is parallel to the ground or lower. Be sure the back remains straight, toes point forward, and there is no upper body tilt to the side.

Bounds

With feet shoulder width apart, jump for distance with both legs, swinging arms. Take a baby hop for balance and then jump again for distance. Repeat in continuous motion for 10 distance hops. 3 sets. Level 1.
Dynamic Movement: This is a high intensity plyometric exercise. This exercise is performed with both legs and is sometimes called “frog hops.” This exercise can be performed on a flat surface or up stadium steps (taking two or three steps at a time). Please note that this exercise should not be performed on concrete steps due to extreme jarring of the joints.
The beginning of plyometric training. As long as the student does not lose balance, repeat safely. If the student loses balance have them reset before the next sequence.

Inch Worms

Stand with feet shoulder width. Bend over, placing palms on the floor. Step forward with the hands until you reach pushup position, then step back with the hands until you get back to the starting position. 3 sets of 6. Level 3.
Dynamic Movement: Develops core strength. Great for hamstring flexibility.
Be sure to keep the legs straight. Can also step forward with the feet when returning to starting position.

Object Control – Volleyball/Soccer

Ball – Underhand Toss & Catch – Partner

Two students approximately 10 feet apart. One student tosses the ball underhanded to the other student, who catches with both hands in front of the body. 3 sets of 6 tosses each. Level 2.
Object Control: Object Control: This activity develops hand-eye coordination, gross and fine motor control, and the ability to track moving objects in the air.
Be sure they try to toss the ball so the partner does not have to move. Toss with both one hand and two hands.

Ball – Bump Underhand & Catch Overhead

Holding a lightweight ball or balloon in one hand, drop the ball and bump it straight up with the other hand. Catch the ball with both hands overhead. 3 sets of 6 tosses. Level 1.
Object Control: This activity develops hand-eye coordination, gross and fine motor control, and the ability to track moving objects in the air, in addition to bilateral skills, timing, sequencing, motor planning, and attention.
Be sure the ball is bumped straight into the air so the students can catch it. Explain that the arms must be parallel to the ground in order for the ball to go straight up and not forward. For the catch, have them move their bodies so that the overhead catch is slightly in front of the head and not to either side.

Ball – Volley – Self

Holding a ball with both hands overhead, toss the ball into the air. Softly volley the ball back into the air using both hands overhead. Keep going as long as possible. Level 1.
Object Control: This activity develops hand-eye coordination, gross and fine motor control, and the ability to track moving objects in the air, in addition to bilateral skills, timing, sequencing, motor planning, and attention.
Be sure the knees are bent and that the student moves to get into position directly under the ball. Eyes should remain focused on the ball as the body adjusts to the trajectory.

Object Control – Soccer

Ball – Dribble (Feet)

Placing a ball on the ground, push the ball with the foot while walking forward, controlling the distance traveled by the ball. Repeat as the student approaches the ball. Level 3.
Object Control: Ball skills not only prepare children for extracurricular activities, but they help to address bilateral skills, hand-eye coordination, timing, sequencing, motor planning, and attention.
Keep your head up as you dribble. Use both feet to kick the ball ever so lightly without losing control at a comfortable speed for you. You should touch the ball with the inside of your shoes, for the most part, for better control. But you can touch it with the outside of your shoe as well.

Ball – Dribble/Trap/Pass – Feet w/ Partner (L & R)

Have two students stand 10’ apart with one soccer ball or volleyball. The first student dribbles the ball with their feet, then traps the ball, then passes to the other student, who repeats the pattern back to the first student. Level 2.
Object Control: This develops coordination, ball control, and symmetry.
Control the dribble by keeping the ball close to the body. Use both feet for all three exercises.

Object Control – Baseball/Tennis

Ball – Balance on Bat

Hold the bat vertical to the ground, gripping the fat end of the bat. Place a ball on the end of the bat, and balance as long as possible. Level 1.
Object Control: Balance drills benefit your neuromuscular coordination – basically it helps improve the communication between your brain and muscles.
Try to remain in the same spot as much as possible, but use the entire body to remain centered on the bat.

Ball – Strike w/ Hand, Bat, Racquet

Have one student toss a ball to another, who swings at the ball with their hand, a bat, and/or a racquet. Perform bilaterally. Level 1.
Object Control: This develops core strength, coordination, and hand-eye coordination.
Be sure the student stands at a right angle to the toss, and strides into the strike with the lead foot. The torso turn is also important.

Plyometrics

Jump Rotations 45°/90°/180°

From athletic position, jump 45° and land on both feet in Athletic Position, then jump another 45° in the same direction until back to the starting position. Perform to the left and to the right. Repeat with the jumps at 90° and again at 180°. Level 3.
Plyometrics: This is a progression of landing with motion. This teaches the athlete to land after a movement. This is essential to create a base of stability for athletic activities.
Focus on a soft landing with the knees absorbing the shock – the eccentric landing technique. Stay balanced and in athletic position.

Two Foot Vertical Hops

From Athletic Position, hop on both feet and land softly, immediately sequencing into the next hop. Arms should be maintained in ready position. 3 sets of 6 hops.. Level 3.
Plyometrics: Develops explosiveness and symmetry. Prior to jumping your muscles are further away from their maximum active state (extended point where they exert the most force). With this type of vertical jump, the quads are really important.
It is important to swing the arms during the movement. The height of the arm swing should be in direct relationship with the height of the jump. The athlete should land on the balls of the feet and if done repetitively they should transition from slow landing to fast and explosive landing that limits time on the ground.

Two Foot Lateral Hops

From Athletic Position, hop on both feet to the right, then hop back to the left. 3 sets of 6 hops to each side. Level 3.
Plyometrics: Lateral hops improve overall hip, knee and ankle joint stability. Lateral drills also help build more balanced strength in the muscles of the lower body, including the hip abductors and adductors.
Adding lateral movement just increases intensity and adds to motor control. Again, emphasis should be put in the athlete being quick with the ground reaction time.

Two Foot Linear Hops

From Athletic Position, hop on both feet forward, then hop backward. 3 sets of 6 hops. Level 3.
Plyometrics: Athletes must perform a balance of jumps, hops and bounds. In addition, hops must be done both anteriorly and side to side. It should be noted that hopping medially and laterally are entirely different in both the muscles stressed and the injury prevention potential. Medial hops (hops toward the midline) are more difficult and provide much needed stress to the hip stabilizers.
Backward hopping challenges the athlete to perform with less visual input. Be sure the weight is evenly distributed on both legs and the head remains still (don’t look back).

Fun Drills

Ball Drop – Sprint

Hold a ball in the air with the student approximately 15 feet away in sprint start position. When the ball drops, the student runs and catches the ball before it bounces twice. Level 1.
Fun Drills: This drill teaches reactivity as well as proper start technique.
Use proper start technique and move quickly upon the movement of the ball.

Linear Speed & Agility

Run/Sprint – High Knees – Arm Swing

Run forward, with knees high on each step. Keep the arms at 90° and the hands straight. Swing the arms fully with the left arm swinging when the right leg is forward, and vice versa. Run 10 yards. 3 sets of 6 reps. Level 2.
Speed & Agility – Linear Movement: Good running form, including lifting your knees and swinging your arms properly, can help increase the speed and efficacy of your runs. High knees are often used when sprinting; the explosive action of lifting your legs quickly from the ground and high into the air helps you move fast.
Make sure the legs and arms stay in a linear position, that the knees are high and that the arm swing is full, with hands straight. Watch for and correct lateral variances.

Sprint Start Technique

3 Point: Put the dominant leg forward with the toe approximately 4” behind the start line. Place the opposite hand on the start line. Get the back leg into a comfortable position. Raise the other arm above the level of the back, and lean slightly forward. Upon starting, lean forward, driving with the back leg and forward arm, and pulling with the front leg and other arm. Stay low for the first several steps. 2 Point Stance: Put the dominant leg on the start line with the back leg at a comfortable distance behind. Bend forward at the waist to approximately 45°. Raise the upper arm opposite the dominant leg behind the torso to parallel in a 90° bend, with the other arm forward of the torso in a 90° bend. Level 1.
Speed & Agility – Linear Movement: There are different starting techniques to generate the most power into a sprint. The shorter the sprint, the faster they have to reach full speed. Longer races do not require such a powerful start because the runner needs to pace himself, and he has a greater amount of time in which to reach maximum velocity.
All body alignment needs to be linear, with the hands open and straight and the feet aligned with the body. The first motion needs to be forward – not a rock back or arm movement.

Pro Agility Drill

5 – 10 – 5. Set three cones at 5 yard intervals. Have students start straddling middle cone/line and then begin the drill. The student will go to either the right or left and then touch the line and quickly run past the start line to a line 10 yards from the line previous line and then turn quickly and run past the start line. Please repeat this 3 times. Level 2.
Speed & Agility – Linear Movement: A short, high speed, controlled running exercise that helps develop not only velocity, but also lateral stability and quickness.
At the start the body should be centered, balanced, and prepared for maximum speed. Feet are slightly farther than shoulder width apart, and the foot closest to the destination should be slightly pivoted, with the toe angled in that direction. If going right, keep the right foot planted and start movement with the left foot. Be sure they maintain a straight line when running. Be sure they touch the right line with the right hand and the left line with the left hand.

Lateral Speed & Agility

Shuffle Technique

From Athletic Position, take a lateral step to the right, then bring the left leg laterally to athletic position. Do not cross the trailing leg in front of the lead leg. Do this slowly for 10 steps in each direction. Level 3.
Speed & Agility – Lateral Movement: Works muscles in the lower body. When done with proper form, the lateral shuffle can improve your flexibility and help strengthen your hip flexors. If you stay in a deep squat throughout the exercise, you can also strengthen the major muscles in your hips and legs.
Keep your back straight, chest up and your eyes looking straight ahead throughout the exercise. Quicken your steps as you get used to the movement.

Lateral Shuffle

Start in good athletic position, with toes forward. In rapid fashion, without crossing your feet, step your legs together and apart moving in one direction. Perform bilaterally. Level 3.
Speed & Agility – Lateral Movement: Lateral shuffles primarily work the muscles in your butt, hips and thighs. This includes the transverse abdominus — the deepest layer of theabdominal muscles — the glutes, hip abductors, quadriceps, hamstrings, hip adductors, calf and shin muscles. The secondary muscles worked are the erector spinae, which are the muscles in your lower back running alongside your spine, and the obliques.
To help with balance, bend and hold your arms in front of your body. Keep your back straight, chest up and your eyes looking straight ahead throughout the exercise. Quicken your steps as you get used to the movement.

Diagonal Shuffle

Shuffle in one direction for 10 yards with the torso diagonal to the line. Pushing on the outside leg, shuffle diagonally in the other direction with the opposite leg leading. Level 3.
Speed & Agility – Lateral Movement: Develops the outside of the hips and the back of the legs.
Remain in athletic position and on the balls of your feet. Keep eyes and head upright, avoid looking down at the ground.

Diagonal Shuffle – Stop

Shuffle in one direction for 10 yards with the torso diagonal to the line. Come to complete stop while holding Athletic Position. Level 3.
Speed & Agility – Lateral Movement: Develops the outside of the hips and the back of the legs.
Shuffle on the balls of the feet. The stop is to ensure correct body position and balance.

Strength – Endurance – Power

Lunges

With your chest lifted, chin up and abs contracted, take a big step forward with your left foot. Sink straight down so your front left knee tracks over the top of your shoe and your back right knee points down toward the floor. You are on your back left toe. Push back to the starting position. Repeat on the right leg. Keep alternating. Level 1.
Strength – Endurance – Power: The lunge provides great range of motion, allowing more substantial glute and hamstring development.
Keep the feet pointed straight ahead – not in or out. Do not touch the knee to the floor. Keep your knees aligned, front knee over your shoe and back knee pointing down. Don’t force your weight into your kneecaps but rather use them as a hinge. Engage your quads, hamstrings and glutes.

Pillars

With the forearms on the ground, get into plank position and hold the position for 20 seconds. Two reps. Level 3.
Strength – Endurance – Power: Fantastic stability exercises which means they focus on helping the smaller muscles around your joints to work better. They help protect the joints against injury. The muscles you work during these exercises are often referred to as the posture muscles as they are the key muscles that will help hold you in a good posture. So, one of the great benefits of these exercises is an improved posture.
Make sure that the backs stay straight – not arched or concave. Watch the shoulder blades to observe stability.

Push Ups

Have students move so that their bellies are on the ground, their elbows are next to their sides and their arms are placed about shoulder width apart. Have students attempt a conventional push up going to 90° on the bent phase and then return to the locked arm phase. Have them attempt 5 pushups, work your way toward 10 by the end of the unit. Level 3.
Strength – Endurance – Power: Develops upper body and core strength as well as trunk stability.
Modified pushups (knees on the ground) are allowable. It is important to watch for form break down like bent torsos or sagging backs.

Squats

From Athletic Position with feet slightly wider (jump position), stick the butt out and down until the hips are past the knees, return to starting position. 3 sets of 6 reps. Do this with arms crossed (Buddha style) and with arms overhead. Level 3.
Strength – Endurance – Power: The squat is a compound, full body exercise that trains primarily the muscles of the thighs, hips and buttocks, quadriceps, hamstrings, as well as strengthening the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs and buttocks, as well as developing core strength. Isometrically, the lower back, the upper back, the abdominals, the trunk muscles, the costal muscles, and the shoulders and arms are all essential to the exercise and thus are trained when squatting with the proper form.
Be sure the upper body remains stable in athletic position. Try to get the hips past the knees if the student is able to. Be sure the toes are pointed forward (not in or out) and that the shoulders remain level.

Thrusters

Break this movement into stages. With the hands upright at chest level, have the student perform a squat, then return to the upright position, then reach their arms overhead. After the movement is learned in these three stages, then reduce it to two fluid stages – squat and thrust. Level 2.
Strength – Endurance – Power: Combining a front squat with an overhead press, thrusters are a compound, multi- joint exercise.
As with the squat, be sure the upper body remains stable and that the hips go down past the knees, if possible. Upward movement should develop into a timed explosion of the leg movement and upward thrust of the arms.

Abdominal Routine (10 Exercises)

Plank, Side Plank, Walk Outs, Side Crawl, Crunch Hands Behind Head, Crunch Hands to Sky, Crunch Hands to Ankles, Leg Flutters, Cross Overs, Leg Raises to 90°. Level 3.
Strength – Endurance – Power: Develops core power and trunk stability.
Be sure the exercises are done in sequence with little time between reps.

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